The Principles of Three-Dimensional Design

  • Composition: The placement or arrangement of visual elements or ingredients in a work of art. To arrange the piece and it’s objects to make the view they want. Defined as the combination of multiple parts into a unified or harmonious whole.



  • Grouping: Initial mental process whereby the viewer tries to create order and make connections when presented with a collection of separate visual units. 



  • Containment: Containment is a unifying force created by the outer edge of a composition or by a boundary withing a composition. 



  • Proximity: It is the distance between units. 



  • Continuity: Defined as a fluid connection among compositional parts. 




  • Repetition: Occurs when we use the same visual element of effect any number of times withing a composition. 



  • Closure: The mind’s inclination to connect fragmentary information to produce a completed form. 



  • Increasing variety: Difference in any aspect of design increases variety. (Line Variation, Variation in texture, Variation in Pattern).



  • Balance: Refers to the distribution of weight or force among visual units.  



  • Scale: Refers to a size relationship between two separate objects. Scale commonly refers to the size of a form when compared to human size. 




  • Proportion: Refers to the relative size of the visual elements within an image. 



  • Emphasis: It gives particular prominence to a part of a design. A focal point is a compositional device used to create emphasis. 



  • Contrast: Created when two or more forces operate in opposition. 



  • Rhythm: Defined as the organization of multiple elements or effects into a deliberate pattern. 


  •  Unity and Variety: Both are completely opposite. Unity means things that match or come together with similarities and alikeness. Variety is difference in things that are compare and show opposite of other things upon them. 




unity variety



  • Balance: It can be shown through patterns, repetition, structure, and symmetry. 

images art-of-balance2

  • Scale: It can be shown be comparing two things and it shows the sizes beside each other. 



  • Line: It can consist of straight, curved, round, or rapid markings of lines. It can be done upon a flat surface, or in any other medium that can be thought up.


  • Plane: A specific surface or placement that continues in a constant position and does not change, or can but in another specific way in an art work. 


  • Volume: Giving a flat object that is normally straight and flat, and then making it something other than flat, and you make it three-dimensional, and that is what volume is to art work with objects that start off as flat. 



  • Mass: This element is very similar to volume, almost exact. So refer to the above element, volume. 


  • Space: It can be expressed in the background, and can be expressed through negative space use, and empty areas within an piece of art work. 


  • Texture: This element is used to make an object in an art piece to look like it feels a certain way or is built a certain way. 



  • Light: It can be realistic, or actual light used in an art piece, or the illusion of light, or the use of techniques to make light in an art piece. 


  • Color: In art, color is the eye being met with light coming off of a piece of art work. Rainbow colors, and neutral colors, or monotone color. 



  • Time: This elements is closely related to the element movement in any art pice that shows objects in a particular way.


  • Form: This element can be show through shapes and sizes that can be objects or places upon a human beings body, and ect. 



  • Content: The subject matter of a work of art including emotional, intellectual, spiritual, and symbolic implication. 



  • Context: The space in which an image or object is placed which can influence meaning. 



  • Hight/Width/Depth: The three dimensions in 3D Design. An orthographic projection helps us to depict these three dimensional in a two-dimensional rendering. 

Funky Abstract Background


  • Relief: Refers to an artwork that uses a flat backing as a base for three dimensional form.



  • A Three-Quarter Work: It can be examined from those front and two sides, adding more dimensionality but still being bound by the wall.


  • Free Standing Works: It is designed to be seen from all sides and allows the viewer to move freely around the object.



  • Installation: An ensemble of images and objects that are presented within a 3 dimensional environment- such as gallery.


  • Earthwork: A large-scale outdoor installation.


  • Site specific artwork: Specifically designed and installed in a particular place.



Critical Essay #4 (Agnes Pelton) “Sand Storm”


         This piece by Agnes Pelton is one of my most favorite pieces I have seen in person. The piece is titled, “Sand Storm,” and this piece will always remain close to my heart and behold a place in my mind when I create art myself. This is for multiple reason. For instance, while at Crystal Bridges with just my mother and I, when we both saw the piece we simultaneously gasped in surprise. The striking beauty of the art piece caught us both off guard and put us both in complete awe. 

          For instance, the bright and illuminate colors within the piece are what truly caught my eye and had me in a trance. The art effected me so much that we strongly considered purchasing the piece because it resinated with my mind of art creation. I also desperately wish to create something so vibrant in color and significant in composition. So seeing the piece woke me up to remembering a goal I have set for myself. 

         Everything about this piece is strong and overwhelming. From the color, to the objects within the piece. I just love the rainbow and the flower shaped object that beholds the strongest vibrancy of the piece.  It is very surreal looking and puts me in a dream like trance. Although most of my dreams are no wear near as peaceful and beautiful-I still like to imagine that “Sand Storm” is a dream I would have if I were in the right mind to. The name of the piece, “Sand Storm,” seems almost like a contradiction. Maybe the piece is something similar to the saying, “Silence before the storm.” 

Overall, this piece by Agnes Pelton, “Sand Storm,” is a admirable piece located in Crystal Bridges. I love every aspect of the piece, and maybe that is because I can make my own aspects when viewing the piece. It is so open and free that any viewer may come to their own conclusion about what exactly the piece is. I find art pieces that do such are the most significant art pieces there are. 


“Crystal Bridges Museum Collection.” Crystal Bridges Museum Collection. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2013.<;

Critical Essay #3 (Georgia O’Keeffe) “Radiator Building-Night, New York”


          This piece is a well-known work created by George O’Keeffe herself. The title of the piece is “”Radiator Building-Night, New York,” and it is a part of the traveling art show,“The Artist’s Eye: Georgia O’Keeffe and the Alfred Stieglitz Collection.” This piece resonated with me with for many reason. From the scenery of New York City, and Nightlife atmosphere, to love and dedication.

          For one, this piece shows the beautiful scenery of New York City and the Radiator building. I found this piece to be glowing and magnificent. The piece grasped my attention right off the bat as I approached the piece at the exhibit in Crystal Bridges. I would gravitate towards the piece every now and again the entirety of the time I spent at the exhibit. That is how magnetic it was to me. Everything about it bleeds New York life and the image of a true night life scene.

        Speaking of the nightlife appeal of the art piece by O’Keeffe- the lights and dark, glowing colors or the piece also had me in a trance. The lights seem to be real, and electronically powered on the canvas and paint. O’Keeffe even involved her husband, Alfred Stieglitz, in a neon red bright light fixture to the fat left. I find all of these features of the piece to be dedicated to O’Keeffe insight and emotions to life, and her romance and dedication to her husband.

      Over all, Georgia O’Keeffe’s “Radiator Building-Night, New York” is a great piece that I find to be significant in my fascination with New York life, and nightlife imagery. Seeing this piece in person also gave me the chance to view the piece up in personal, and gave me the chance to truly understand the meanings within the art work by O’Keeffe.


Kinder, Kevin. “Long-Awaited Revelation | NWAonline.” NWAonline. NWA Media, 8 Nov. 2013. Web. 14 Dec. 2013.


Critical Essay #2 (Stanton Macdonald-Wright) “Spring Synchromy”


Stanton Macdonald-Wright’s “Spring Synchromy” is a well-known art piece. This piece is a part of an exhibit called “The Artist’s Eye: Georgia O’Keeffe and the Alfred Stieglitz Collection.” The exhibit is located at, and founded by Crystal Bridges from November 9, 2013, through February 3, 2014. This piece is within a pink room that showcases many artists who were influenced by both O’Keeffe and Stieglitz. But for this art piece to be placed in the front of the pink room, and the size of it is what caught my attention and captured my heart.

In relation to the fact of how attractive the art piece is because of its stature, it is the colors are what truly kept me in tuned. I am a big component for using hue to its full extent, and in doing so in the purest of manners.  Seeing these colors in “Spring Synchromy” with such bright and radiant glows is magnificent to me. It is what makes the art piece its best in my own personal opinion. Also, the shapes used to place the colors accordingly within the painting is undeniable factor. I find this piece to be accurate in the execution of both color and hue, and shape.

“Spring Synchromy” is an in-motion piece that shows the figure of a woman who is sitting down, standing up, and sitting back down again. This piece by Macdonald-Wright shows the movements made in time, and how quickly it may pass by. But even though it may pass by ever so quickly-the moments made in time can be captured and stilled into one image, and that is exactly what the artist has done here. He has created a moment by combining a series of different moments. He has exposed the movements not seen in just one incident. He made it so the viewers can see many different moments and movement in just one incident. He, more or less, made the impossible a little more possible.

Over all, This piece by Stanton Macdonald-Wright titled “Spring Synchromy” is a masterpiece created through his interpretation of movement and color. Also, he uses shapes to execute the figures shown within the piece. This piece is a great example of exactly what kind of art I aspire to create. Seeing simple yet complex art pieces such as this one gives me inspiration to do the same. It gives me the inspiration to create something that shows simple structures visually but also to create complex and intuitive meanings to show the piece in its true factor.


Macdonald-Wright, Stanton. “Spring Synchromy.”Http:// The Artist’s Eye, Crystal Bridges, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2013.